Did the Celts Really Reach the Americas Before the Vikings and Columbus? Debunking a Misguided Theory

photo of derelict wooden ship on shore

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For people who are proud of and actively celebrate their Celtic heritage, there can be seemingly no bounds to the cultural and technological achievements of their Celtic ancestors. To the superfans, the ancient Celts were more than “mere” warrior-poet-metalworker-road-builders who sacked Rome before it was cool, they were also transatlantic voyagers who reached the New World ahead of the Norsemen and that infamous Genoan, Christopher Columbus.

On the other side of that coin, we have the Celtic deniers, people who belittle the accomplishments of the ancient Celts and claim, for example, that the Celts did not really settle in Britain ahead of the Normans and the Anglo-Saxons and the Romans, and that the reason the ancient Britons spoke a Celtic language and practiced Celtic customs was the result of a cultural invasion, not an actual one. But this is a debate for another day.

My point here is that the present shapes the past. Our current prejudices and cultural allegiances play a large role in what we believe.

On this humble website, I strive for objectivity. I try to separate my personal feelings and preferences from what actually exists in the historical record. So while personally, as someone with Celtic heritage, I think it would be pretty awesome if we could prove that the ancient Celts crossed the Atlantic in a currach all those centuries ago, the reality is there’s no concrete evidence to support such a claim.


Were the Celts the first Europeans to reach the Americas?

an illustration of Vikings landing on a shore
‘Leif Eriksson Discovers America’ by Hans Dahl (1849-1937) (source: Wikimedia Commons)

No, the Celts were not the first Europeans to reach the Americas. That distinction currently goes to a band of Vikings who settled (albeit temporarily) in what is now L’Anse aux Meadows in northern Newfoundland around 1000 CE. According to the Icelandic sagas, a Viking by the name of Thorfinn Karlsefni led the expedition, disembarking from the west coast of Greenland with three ships, following a route established by Leif Eriksson a few years earlier. After about three years of living in the New World, during which time there existed a tumultuous relationship with the local, aboriginal tribes, Thorfinn and company packed up and left.

But they didn’t pack everything. And that’s how we know that this New World landing (or a similar one conducted by another band of Vikings) actually took place: In 1960, archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad and her explorer husband Helge Ingstad discovered the remains of a Viking encampment at L’Anse aux Meadows. In addition to identifying the footprints of eight, wood-framed sod buildings, the husband and wife team uncovered several everyday items used by Norsemen and Norsewomen of that era, including an oil lamp, a bronze pin, a bone knitting needle, and part of a spindle.

In 1978, L’Anse aux Meadows was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 

I provide this overview of the history of the Viking transatlantic voyage and the Newfoundland archaeological site to illustrate an important juxtaposition: There is no such historical evidence to support an ancient Celtic voyage of a similar nature. No archaeological site brimming with telltale Celtic artifacts. There is nothing to support the ancient-Celts-in-America theory but conjecture.

So why do some people still believe it?


America B.C.: A Bogus Book That Started a Celtic Craze

A confession: I found a copy of Barry Fell’s 1976 “groundbreaking” work of pseudoarchaeology at a used bookstore in Montreal sometime in the late 2000s/early 2010s. And as a young(ish), impressionable Humanistic Studies major who played Irish and Scottish folk music at the local pubs (and occasionally at that very bookstore), I was enthralled.

At first glance, America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World reads like an academic work, something rooted in sound science. What’s more, the author was a Harvard professor. Surely, with such a pedigree, he would’ve been above publishing unsubstantiated quackery?

Prepare to lose (even more) faith in humanity.

Recently, when reading a book on the actual, proven history of the Celts, The Celtic Empire by Peter Berresford Ellis (see my review here), I did a double-take. At the end of the book, Ellis spends a few pages dispelling a couple of common myths (not myths like myths and legends, but myths like widely held falsehoods) about the ancient Celts, one of them being that they crossed the Atlantic and reached the New World. And which book does Ellis credit with popularizing that myth? You guessed it.

Upon reading the title, I cast my gaze up at my bookshelf and bristled at the sight of the chunky black letters printed on the spine.

So what exactly is wrong with the archaeology presented in America B.C.? And how can we know for sure that the ancient Celts never reached the New World? 

Let’s start with that second question first: It’s certainly possible that the ancient Celts reached the Americas before the Vikings. There’s just no evidence for it. And while believing in things without evidence has long been a hallmark of our species (and there’s been a tremendous and disheartening resurgence of it as of late), I cannot so swiftly bring myself to abandon the concept of shared, objective truth. 

Demanding that others prove negatives (i.e. “Well, you can’t prove that X didn’t happen, can you?) is an exercise in futility. And sloppy, haphazard research and representations of ancient peoples, no matter how well-intentioned, will only serve to erode shared truths, including our shared knowledge of Celtic history. To quote Ellis: 

“The ‘Celtic Renaissance’ of the nineteenth century in some ways did a disservice to ancient Celtic civilization for it saw the creation of a new era of myth-making as poets and novelists and musicians contributed to the production of a ‘never-never world’ of pre-Christian Celtic society.”

source: The Celtic Empire: The First Millennium of Celtic History, 1000 BC – AD 51

In one version of that make-believe world, the ancient Celts not only made it to North America, they also settled there permanently and taught Gaelic to the ancestors of the Algonquins.


Debunking the Myth of the Transatlantic Ancient Celts

In America B.C., Harvard professor Barry Fell purports that between the eighth and sixth centuries BCE, the Celtiberians (the Celts of the Iberian Peninsula, what is now Portugal and Spain) migrated to North America, settling primarily in New England. He backs up this claim with two main pieces of “evidence,” which I will address in turn.

Firstly, Fell argues that many stones and monoliths in New England are rife with ancient Ogham inscriptions, Ogham being the hash mark-like system of writing allegedly employed by the Celtiberians. And here we’ve already run into a problem, because while Fell claims to have discovered Ogham inscriptions, both in Iberia and New England, which date back to around the eighth century BCE, Ogham itself would not be invented until the fifth century CE in southwestern Ireland.

There’s also the inconvenient (for Fell) fact that the ancient Celts did not write anything down, not for lack of knowledge or intelligence but because it was part of their culture. Druids spent decades memorizing lessons and stories and passing them down, orally, to the next generation. Writing was sort of viewed as cheating. So the idea that there were ancient druids in Vermont scribbling on every stone they could find does not mesh with the well-established historical record. 

The Irish scholar and professor Gearóid Mac Eoin summed up the problem with the ancient American Ogham theory nicely when he wrote:

“The rock scratchings resemble Ogham script only insofar as they are lines on rocks…Dr. Fell ignores completely the question of Celtic history.”

Fell’s second piece of “evidence” for transatlantic ancient Celts stems from the idea that one can find Celtic loan words in the language of the Algonquins. Fell assumes the ancient Celtiberians spoke a Goidelic (Gaelic) version of Celtic, and historians agree that this was likely the case, with Brythonic (Brittonic) Celtic arriving in Iberia in later centuries. But where Fell falters is in his assumption that the Celtic languages remained static for thousands of years. Because in his attempts to translate the “Ogham” he discovered in New England, he uses modern Scottish Gaelic as his cipher.

This…is dumb. But instead of you having to listen to me dunk on Fell any further, I’ll let Ellis explain to you why this is so dumb:

“To illustrate the pitfalls, take the word cuithe, which Professor Fell claims was borrowed from the Celts into the Algonquin Indian language to survive today, its meaning being a gorge. He correctly points out that cuithe in modern Scottish Gaelic means a pit. But the word cuithe is in fact a loan word from Latin into Old Irish, coming from the word puteus. This would put its appearance in Old Irish [the progenitor of Scottish Gaelic] not much before the fifth or sixth centuries AD. How, then, could it have existed in the Celtic of Professor Fell’s intrepid explorers of the eighth century BC?”

source: The Celtic Empire: The First Millennium of Celtic History, 1000 BC – AD 51

Here’s another question: How could such an educated and presumably smart person, a person with a PhD, a Harvard professor!, make such a rookie mistake? Welp, things might become more clear when you learn that Fell was not a professor of history, or linguistics, or archaeology. He was a professor of zoology.

And while he got a lot of things, nearly everything, wrong about the Celts, Fell the zoologist did get a few things right, including the fact that the Celtiberians did have the nautical technology and wherewithal to complete a crossing of the Atlantic. There’s just no evidence that they ever did.

So, is that the end of our story? Not quite. Because while there is no evidence of the ancient Celts ever having reached the Americas, fans of Irish history and/or Irish mythology and/or Irish hagiography may have a lingering question:

What about Brendan?


Did St. Brendan the Navigator reach the Americas before Columbus?

an illustration of St. Brendan the Navigator, dating back to 1304
an illustration of St. Brendan the Navigator, dating back to 1304 (source: Wikimedia Commons)

Whether you call him “the Navigator,” “the Voyager,” “the Anchorite,” or “the Bold,” St. Brendan, founder of the Clonfert monastery in Co. Galway, was a real, historical person. Born in Co. Kerry in 486 CE (or thereabouts), just a couple of decades after the death of St. Patrick (another historical saint whose legacy gets infused and entangled with mythology), Brendan is famous for his legendary voyage that took him around—and possibly across—the Atlantic Ocean.

Known as “Navigatio Sancti Brendani” (the Voyage of St. Brendan), the story was incredibly popular during the Middle Ages and was translated into multiple European languages. In it, Brendan learns from a man named Barinthus about a place called the Land of Promise. Intrigued, he sets out on the open sea, and all sorts of hijinks ensue. (At one point, Brendan makes landfall on an island…which turns out to be the back of a giant whale named Jasconius.)

According to Ellis, in his reference work A Dictionary of Irish Mythology, there’s no denying that the story of Brendan’s voyage “played an important part in inspiring the voyages which later resulted in the discovery [sic] of America.” (Note: Europeans didn’t actually discover America, a land that was already inhabited, but we understand Ellis’s intended meaning.) 

But beyond inspiring transatlantic voyages, did St. Brendan the Navigator ever make the voyage himself? 

It’s certainly possible that he did, as a sturdy currach (a wood- or wicker-framed Irish boat covered with a watertight animal hide) rigged with a sail could make the voyage, but once again we’re faced with that pesky little problem of no evidence, archaeological or otherwise. Because while Brendan is a historical figure, the story of his voyage is not. As Ellis points out:

“The tale seems to be based on the earlier ‘Voyage of Mael Dúin‘ by a late ninth- or early tenth-century Irish Latinist…Like Mael Dúin [Brendan] came to an island populated by spirits in bird form, found a crystal column in the sea, sailed a translucent sea and came to an island of giant smiths.”

source: A Dictionary of Irish Mythology

Of course, I’d be remiss not to mention that kernels of truth can sometimes be found within myths and legends. Look no further than the Icelandic sagas, and the story of Thorfinn Karlsefni, to see an example of how a centuries-old story can eventually be proven true.

Will archaeologists someday discover evidence of pre-Columbian Irish contact with the Americas?

Stay tuned.

And in the meantime, if you’re looking for some mindless entertainment (that Ellis would probably frown upon), check out the short story “Brendan’s Final Voyage,” available for free right here.


Further (Academic) Reading:

The Celts: Search for a Civilization

by Alice Roberts

Per the publisher: “The Celts are one of the world’s most mysterious ancient people. In this compelling account, Alice Roberts takes us on a journey across Europe, uncovering the truth about this enigmatic tribe: their origins, their treasure and their enduring legacy today. What emerges is not a wild people, but a highly sophisticated tribal culture that influenced the ancient world – and even Rome.” Learn more…


Celts: The History and Legacy of One of the Oldest Cultures in Europe

by Martin J. Dougherty

Per the publisher: “Before the Vikings, before the Anglo-Saxons, before the Roman Empire, the Celts dominated central and western Europe. Today we might think of the Celts only inhabiting parts of the far west of Europe – Ireland, Great Britain, France and Spain – but these were the extremities in which their culture lasted longest. In fact, they had originated in Central Europe and settled as far afield as present day Turkey, Poland and Italy.” Learn more…


The Celtic Empire: The First Millennium of Celtic History, 1000 BC – AD 51

by Peter Berresford Ellis

Per the publisher: “European recorded history north of the Alps begins with the Celts. At their height, they stretched over the ancient world from Ireland and Britain to Turkey and Czechoslovakia, from Belgium and Gaul to Spain and Italy. They sacked Rome, invaded Greece, and even attempted to take over the Egypt of the Ptolemy pharaohs. Yet theirs was an empire without an emperor, a civilization that encompassed the continent but had no central government. To tell its history, Ellis matches his storytelling talents with the firsthand and classical accounts of the Celtic empire.” Learn more…


P.S. If you want to help support IrishMyths.com, be sure to drop by our Made in Ireland Store, where we’ve curated some of our favorite handmade Irish goods. Sláinte!

5 thoughts on “Did the Celts Really Reach the Americas Before the Vikings and Columbus? Debunking a Misguided Theory

  1. This article makes no mention of “The Testimony of Francisco de Chicora” (1525) about his King “Datha of Duhare” in the Carolinas. Chicora described his king and the ruling class as being giant white skinned people with long hair like the sun (yellow or red) who were tattooed from head to toe in blue ink. In Gaelic “datha” refers to color or dye and likely meant “Painted”. Duhare was possibly “Di’hAichir” which would have meant that they were somehow distant ancient ancestral cousins of the Ó hAichir Clan and Hare family surname. The description by Chicora, a Native of the Carolinas, of his own King first perfectly with the Ancient Pictish warriors of Scotland. They may have been Celtic Pagans who fled across the Atlantic with the arrival of Christianity to Ireland the same way seven Visigoth priests fled with their people from the Muslims when they invaded Hispania in 742 and crossed the Atlantic Ocean to the Island of Antillia. History is far stranger than the history books tell it. It’s never a good approach to mock people as “dumb” for thinking outside of the boxes that standard narratives try to fit everything into. If you’re wrong and mock others as dumb you end up looking like an idiot.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks for your comment, Jonathan. I’ve heard this theory before. And while it is certainly plausible (as I mention in the article, the ancient Irish had the requisite technology to make a transatlantic voyage), the issue remains that there’s no tangible, irrefutable evidence that this happened. What’s more, many of the points you make have alternative explanations.

      “Duhare,” for example, is an anglicization. In the original Latin, the place name “in provincia Duharae” is given, implying the name in the nominative form would be Duhara. The name is also later spelled “Duharhe.” And as journalist/anthropologist Jason Colavito explains:

      “If we pronounce the name according to Latin rules (‘Doo-AH-ray’), or (assuming the word form was delivered in the Spanish explorers’ own language) historical Spanish pronunciation (‘Doo-HAH-ray’), the similarities to the Gaelic fade. The ‘Éir’ is meant to be pronounced ‘Ire,’ as in Ireland, and doesn’t reconcile with the Latin or Spanish pronunciation of ‘ar’ without special pleading that renders any argument from accuracy moot. The proposed Gaelic original also clearly has no terminal vowel, so why should we accept this identification and no other? If the argument comes from accuracy, this must fail.”

      Colavito also points out that “painted” is not a direct translation of the Gaelic “datha.” I’ll let him explain:

      “The word ‘dath’ means ‘color,’ ‘stain,’ or ‘dye,’ and is related to the verb ‘dath,’ ‘to stain.’ The word ‘datha’ is the past participle of ‘dath’ and means ‘colored,’ ‘stained,’ or ‘tinged.’ However, ‘dathan’ could refer to paint, in the sense of a color used to tinging. But given the broad tolerance we’re asked to accept for the accuracy of ‘Duhare,’ I can’t see how we can distinguish ‘Datha’ from similar-sounding words like ‘Datan’ (‘foster-father’), ‘Data’ (‘handsome’), or ‘Dathag’ (‘parasitic worm’).”

      To this I’ll add the hypothesis of linguist Blair Rudes who asserts, based on linguistic evidence, that the tribe in question here is the Iroquoian Tuscarora tribe. For example, he suggests that “Datha” corresponds to the Old Tuscaroran “Teeth-ha,” meaning “king,” and that it may have been a title rather than a proper name.

      As for the white skin, it’s important to recognize (as Colavito points out) that the concept of color-based race had yet to fully develop when court chronicler Peter Martyr published “The Testimony of Francisco de Chicora” in his work De Orbe Novo (Decades of the New World). Thus, describing the people of Duhare as having light skin was likely meant in relativistic terms (i.e. they had lighter skin than other native peoples). Colavito also notes that “candidos” was the specific word used, meaning pale, light colored, fair, or bright, and not “albus,” the typical word for white.

      As for the blond/red hair, the people of Duhare are described as having long, brown hair. “Their hair is brown and hangs to their heels.” I couldn’t find any historical reference to them having “hair like the sun.”

      One of the most crucial points I discovered in my research is that the Irish/Carolinas theory is largely the work of one man, Richard Thornton, who claims that the text he analyzed came from the Lambeth Palace box of “lost” colonial texts. The only thing is…these texts were never lost. People have been studying them for decades. To quote Colavito:

      “The long and short of it is that Thornton is worked up over a well-known document and imagines a conspiracy to keep from the history books texts that the history books don’t just reference but also reprint, discuss, and analyze.”

      A final thought: It was never my intention to “mock people as ‘dumb'” for challenging traditional historical narratives. I consider myself a skeptic. But I am also skeptical of the skeptics. Thornton, for example, is clearly very intelligent. And I’ll even go so far as to say…his theory might be correct! It’s just that as of right now, the evidence isn’t there.

      That being said, if that evidence does materialize some day, and Thornton is proven right, I don’t think I’ll “end up looking like an idiot,” I think I’ll end up looking like someone who carefully considered all the evidence and didn’t jump to a conclusion prematurely.

      Sources:

      https://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/did-an-irish-tribe-colonize-pre-columbian-south-carolina

      Click to access The%20First%20Description%20of%20An%20Iroquoian%20People.pdf

      https://thenewworld.us/the-testimony-of-francisco-de-chicora/

      https://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/did-richard-thornton-find-lost-proof-of-europeans-in-the-american-south-before-columbus

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      1. Very well thought out and source/reference filled response. That’s unusual online so I’d like to say “Respect” for that first and reel myself in a bit with the tone. I’m not Irish so everything that I can say about the Irish is entirely second-hand. I did look up the source of my information about the possible Gaelic and Irish connection to Datha of Duhare and you’re correct, it came from Thornton. I can’t vouch for the accuracy of his theory and shouldn’t go so hard on ideas of his that are unproven, especially when I know that much of what he says about the Cherokee is nonsense. I’ll stick with I know to be true.

        My Rex surname in the U.S. originates with a man named Hans Jorg Ruger who was also known as George Rex. He left Krefeld in Germany with the first 13 families of Pennsylvania Dutch in 1682, if I’m remembering correctly. From Krefeld they traveled up the Rhine to Rotterdam in the Netherlands and then crossed to London and from there sailed to the Pennsylvania Colony established by William Penn where they laid the foundations of Philadelphia. Our Rex/Ruger name in Germany had numerous variations that trace clear back through Germanic-Nordic history to the Indo-European Scythians (most likely). Research suggested we come from Cnut Rex II (King Cnut the Great of England, Denmark and Sweden) and his father Suanos Rex (King Sweyn Forkbeard) of Denmark and Sweden. Sweyn’s and his father Gorm were responsible for the Jelling Runestones and are said to be sons of Ragnar Lodbrok through Gorm’s father Cnut Rex I (Harthacnut) and grandfather Sigurd “Snake-in-the-Eye” Ragnarrson. I’m going entirely by memory here so I may have missed a name or gotten a detail or two wrong. My father’s mother was from the Mowat surname, her great-grandfather being Sir Olver Mowat of Ontario (3rd Premier and Founding Father of Canadian Federation). His father John Mowat chartered Queen’s University in Ontario. Back in Scotland our Mowat male ancestors were Chiefs of the Monte Alto Clan that traces back through Scottish history to the Normans. The reason that I mention all this is that my ancestry through my father can be traced back well over a thousand years reliably and then further back from there genetically since our Y-Chromosome has been identified as Scandinavian with origins with one man from the Yamnaya Culture (R-L238) and my father’s maternal lineage is also known (I1a1).

        Through my mother we’re Cherokee, from the matrilineal Anitawodi (Hawk Clan) also known as the Aniwodi (Red Paint Clan). Through her father we’re also descended from Tsiyu Ganasini (Dragging Canoe), founding war chief of the Tsikamagi Confederacy (called the Chickamauga Cherokee). I’ve been researching our ancestry on this side for about 15 years, combining genealogical research with genetic studies and archeological discoveries. I’ve tried to remain as objective as possible in what I’ve found, first by viewing it through the lens of a Cherokee and then by disconnecting myself from that association and viewing it through the lens of a male from my father’s lineage. What I’ve found to be true is that most of what is taught about our people is lies. Not only from Non-Cherokee but from Cherokee who have learned their Cherokee history from Non-Cherokee since 1800 when Moravian Missionaries came in and decided to rework our entire culture to make it fit with America. Her are some facts:

        Dragging Canoe is said in all the books to be the son of Attakullakulla. This is complete nonsense. Dragging Canoe was born in 1732 in the Natchez refugee town of Falacheco in Mississippi among the Chickasaw who were allied to Britain. His mother was Natchez, the daughter of Obalalkabiche – the last “Plumed Serpent” of the Mississippian Civilization culture. He was called “Tattooed Serpent” and he was located at the site of the Emerald Mound in Mississippi before the French waged a War of Annihilation against the Natchez for the massacre of Fort Rosalie in 1728. Ollie Nionee escaped with the help of African slaves who the Natchez freed from the French at Rosalie and she gave birth to Dragging Canoe four years later in Falacheco. His birth name was K’itza’kulka (The Itza Serpent) and our tradition is that he was a descendant of the Plumed Serpents through his father of men who built the pyramid at Chichen Itza. That was our tradition about the direct male descendants of Dragging Canoe who carry his name in an Anglicized form to this day (Conseen, meaning Dragger, from Ganasini – spelled Cheucunsene on the Treaty of Washington in 1816 with the President of the United States). I spoke with several so-called self-proclaimed Cherokee “scholars” before getting DNA results and shared this family origin story with them. They all said that it was just a fanciful story, a fiction, nonsense. They pushed the lies written down by American historians about the Cherokee that were repeated over and over and over again until they became a gospel truth. But DNA results verified the family origin story. The Y-Chromosome that all Conseen men carry comes from Central America (Guatemala specifically). What’s odd about this is that there is Irish mixed in with this line 8+ generations before 1600. That’s supposedly impossible. The only way it would have been possible would be if there were Irish people in America before the Spanish and French showed up.

        My own mitochondrial DNA showed Sephardic-Jewish admixture with Sardinian and Senegalese mixed in for 8+ generations before 1600. This also is supposedly impossible if we accept the American fantasy about only one raise of Asiatic people making it to America pre-Columbus. I was able to identify where my Sephardic-Jewish ancestry came from. Dragging Canoe’s daughter Amasvyi Consene married Thomas Chandler and became Amasa Chandler. Thomas Chandler’s direct male lineage originated in John Chandler of the Jamestown Colony who arrived as a 10 year old boy from London. He later married Elizabeth Bassano-Lupo when her husband Lieutenant Albiano Lupo died. Elizabeth Bassano was the daughter of Geronimo Bassano whose father Antonio Bassano was the and brothers were Royal Musicians to the King of England from Venice, Italy. Their father Maestro Hieronymus Bassano was a Sephardic Jewish man from Bassano del Grappo who moved to Venice and made musical instruments for all the monarch of Europe. Emelia Bassano, a second cousin of Elizabeth Bassano is actually credited with ghostwriting the plays attributed to William Shakespeare with her cousin Antonio Bassano (Elizabeth’s grandfather). Again, I’m going entirely by memory so I may be getting some details wrong – this would need to be fact checked for accuracy. My Sephardic-Jewish ancestry through my mother’s comes from the Bassanos but I only found that after discovering that through research that there were Sephardic Jewish and Senegalese men in the Cherokee lands before the British arrived throughout the 1500s. The Spanish were actually trying to capture them but the “King of the Chiaha” was protecting them and the Spanish were prevented from seizing them. The Spanish reported throughout the 1500s that the Sephardic Jews were operating mines in the southern Appalachians and the Chiaha were all wearing masterful jewelry being made by them. There are reports also that these Sephardic Jews, fleeing the Spanish Inquisition, also supplying the Chiaha Kituwas with horses and the most modern weapons and that the Cherokee tribe began as a mixed-race confederacy of Missisippian Indians, Sephardic Jews, and Senegalese. The Jewish members referred to the people as the “Cha’raqqia” which in Hebrew means “Life in the Firmament” (Mountain People). Ask any so-called “expert” from North Carolina Universities how the Cherokee began as a people, though, and you’ll get some primitive idiotic tourist story about a turtle and water spider. The Museums of America are Indian Mausoleums where non-Natives make money exhibiting Native cultures to other non-Natives from around the world and the entire field of Ethnography began with Edward Curtis paying Indians who wore modern clothes to dress up for him. Hollywood then based all of its films off of Edward Curtis photos, fictions on top of fictions.

        This is what Native Scholars must deal with. We learn our history and teach it, we have to constantly contend with false narratives perpetuated for the last several hundred years that were concocted by the people invading and occupying the lands. There is substantial evidence that the various tribes of the Pre-Columbian people in America came from every race on earth. There’s a reason that no DNA studies have been published on the thousands of remains found in North American mounds. Try to find information on the 7 foot tall skeletons in thousands of mounds. Good luck. It was blatantly covered up by the Smithsonian for unknown reasons, but I’ve got military documents from Yerba Buena Island in San Francisco that verify the people buried at the base of the natural island were shorter and of a different race from those buried at the top who were over 7 feet in height. The extraordinary heights of many Natives were repeatedly referenced in illustrations and modern so-called scholars foo-foo it off as exaggerations based on absolutely nothing other than their own need to pretend they know more than the people who actually met folks. It’s infuriating that every Native tribe has stories of giants (very tall war chiefs) who dominated the Mississippian Civilization and yet Non-Native “scholars” will actively try to destroy the careers of anybody who teaches it. There’s literally thousands of black basketball players across America today who are the height of the “giants” described back then, yet it’s said to be far fetched because European men back then were only about 5’8 on average. I suspect that if you test the DNA of many of these 7 foot black athletes you’ll discover they have Senegalese ancestors from West Africa who crossed the Atlantic long ago with a Phoenician man that became the source of the Mayan and Aztec legends of Kukulkan or Quetzalcoatl and I’d be willing to bed the “Jaguar Warriors” and Mississippian tradition of painting themselves head to toe black to represent ancient black skinned warriors comes from them also.

        America wants black Americans to all identify with slavery, to think the only way they arrived was as slaves. To keep that slave identity firmly rooted in their minds because it’s impossible to free yourself when the shackles are in your head. But they know it’s a lie because Columbus was a Jewish man who left Spain the day Jews were expelled and he was led by the Nino Brothers, black men. He used Jewish symbols on all of his letters to his sons and then pretended to be a Christian when writing all of his other letters. Who teaches that a Sephardic Jew led by black men discovered America? Who? Nobody, because they’re all liars with zero integrity who pretend they were Europeans due to their names. The Nino brothers had already been to Antillia, Maps throughout the 15th Century from Zuane Pizzigano (1424), Battista Beccario (1435), Andrea Bianco (1436), Grazioso Benincasa (1462, 1470, and again in 1482), Albino de Canepa (1489) all depict Antillia.Martin Behaim’s Erdapfel, the oldest terrestrial globe from 1492 (before Columbus returned from the Americas), depicts it also. The Legend of Antillia, the archipelago in the Bahamas that Columbus was trying to reach, had been taught by Christians throughout the Iberian Peninsula since 714 when the Muslims attacked and conquered Hispania and seven Visigoth bishops fled across the Atlantic. The name Antillia itself comes from the Arabic “Al-Tennyn” because Muslims during the Medieval Era referred to the Bahamas as Jezirat al Tennyn or “The Isle of Dragons” due to the fact that they were reaching the Americas clear back then and interacting with the Mayans, Aztecs and Mississippians who were ruled by Great Sun Civil Chiefs and War Chief Dragons called “Tattooed” or “Plumed Serpents”. The legend of Kukulkan and Quetzalcoatl attest to this.

        Hell, the ancient Greek Plato wrote about Atlantis and described its size almost perfectly – Ancient Libya (North Africa) with Anatolia above it. He even described ancient Atlanteans seven thousand years before the Athenian statesmen Solon attacking the Mediterranean before they suddenly stopped coming – around the time the Hiawatha Meteor smashed into northern Greenland and completely transformed North America, changing river systems and killing off Wild Horses, Mammoths, Giant Ground Sloths, Giant Flat Nosed Bears, the American Elephants, and Dire Wolves all in one swoop. Solon who learned his story of Atlantis that was repeated by Plato got it from Egypt and the Egyptian tomb of Tutankhamen had coptic jars with cocaine and tobacco residue in them over 3,300 years ago. Cocaine and tobacco came from the Americas so there’s only one way the Egyptians could have had them. The Paracas Peruvian elongated skulls have been genetically tested. Twenty-two of them? Because they have red hair on their heads. Turns out they came from the Black Sea region genetically. Then, of course, there’s the tribe in New Zealand that was there before the Maori. One of the women participated in a DNA study and her genetic markers came back showing a match with Egyptians and Central Americans – suggested the path that her ancestors took from Egypt to Central America and on across the Pacific Ocean rather than east.

        We know that the Vikings reached North America 1,000 years ago. We know the Chinese admiral Zheng He set sail from China under orders of the Dragon Emperor to map the entire world with the largest fleet the world has ever seen (he wouldn’t have returned to China if he didn’t reach the Americas and complete his mission). We know that Abubakari II abdicated his throne in West Africa to set sail for the Americas and never returned. Only a fool could possibly believe that just one race (Asiatic people) made it to the Americas. Why would anybody believe such a stupid thing? Even the claim that all Natives had to have come before a certain date has been proven wrong by excavations since 2000. The entire narrative that has been taught is completely discredited. It’s utter nonsense, down to the reason that Columbus set sail to begin with (he was trying to find a new homeland for the Jews in diaspora – financed entirely by Jewish men Louis de Santangel, Gabriel Sanchez, and the Rabbi and Statesmen Don Isaac Abarbanel (not Queen Isabella). To reach the lands he also used the new astrolabe created by Abraham Zacuto. Abraham was a polymath mathematician, historian, rabbi, astrologer and the Royal Astronomer to King John of Portugal. The outright deceit by academics has only been exposed because of the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. The digitization of information and the ability to share information globally is proving everything that has been taught for the last few hundred years since International Bankers began conspiring to overthrow the Kingdoms of the Earth in the name of Democracy is propaganda.

        Take for example America’s Revolution. Who financed it? One man financed it. His name was Mayer Rothschild and he financed it through his proxy Haym Salomon. That’s an undeniable fact because America was then in debt to his son Nathan Rothschild for 100 Million after the war and Nathan Rothschild got the first Democrat President Andrew Jackson elected so he would sign the Indian Removal Act and cause the Trail of Tears. By driving my people off our lands America could then sell our lands between the Mississippi River and Appalachian Mountains and pay off the debt America owed to the Nathan Rothschild for debts accrued by his father Mayer Rothschild. It’s taught the U.S. Flag comes from Betsy Ross? Pure idiotic gibberish. The flag comes from the East India Company Flag and was created in 1600 by Sir John Watts, Lord Mayor of London who held shares in the East India Company and created the Virginia Company, founding Jamestown as its first Colony. Bill Gates direct great-grandfather Sir Thomas Gates was also a shareholder in the East India Company and Jamestown’s first mayor. Is it a coincidence then that Bill Gates and the Rothschilds are partners to this day in the World Health Organization, World Economic Forum, and various other ventures? There is only one way to teach our history as Native Americans and that is by exposing the lies. The entire system is lies propped up on top of lies. Most of the so-called scholars quote books that quote books that quote books that quote liars. When you get to the first source it’s almost always made up nonsense.

        The Celtic people, like the Gaelic, Germanic, Nordic, and Slavic people all spread out west from Eurasia between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and their ancient ancestors ended up there after spreading out from Africa. To think that some of them (the Nordic branch) crossed the Atlantic and another branch (the Celtic branch) didn’t is naive. Apologies for the rant, but the time has come for history to be rethought and retaught. There’s a reason that those in power are attempting to discredit all knowledge accumulated and shifted through online as “less valid”. Because the Internet and World Wide Web is transforming the world in every possible way – including which narratives become the dominant ones. Those in power rose to power through false narratives that allowed them to stay in the shadows, operating in secret. That’s over now.

        Liked by 1 person

  2. Apologies for typos. Shoulda read that back before hitting “post comment”. I’m treating this exchange in the comments as a casual conversation – the sort I’d have in the pub while playing Texas Holdem. What I’m writing here should be thoroughly researched by those who are academically minded if they’re interested in the academic side of things. I’m just choppin’ it up. I enjoyed the article and it got me turned up a bit.

    Liked by 1 person

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